The Coins Vol 1-3 By Shoot Ogawa High Quality
The players may count aloud to three, or speak the name of the game (e.g. "Rock! Paper! Scissors!"), either raising one hand in a fist and swinging it down with each syllable or holding it behind their back. They then "throw" or "shoot" by extending it towards their opponent. Variations include a version where players throw immediately on the third count (thus throwing on the count of "Scissors!"), or a version where they shake their hands three times before "throwing".
The Coins Vol 1-3 by Shoot Ogawa
Using the same tripartite division, there is a full-body variation in lieu of the hand signs called "Bear, Hunter, Ninja". In this iteration the participants stand back-to-back and at the count of three (or ro-sham-bo as is traditional) turn around facing each other using their arms evoking one of the totems. The players' choices break down as: Hunter shoots bear; Bear eats ninja; Ninja kills hunter. The game was popularized with a FedEx commercial where warehouse employees had too much free time on their hands.
In general, the game-based version employed typical characteristics of games (Plass et al., 2015) such as narrative elements (story line: Semideus tries to find gold coins that a goblin has stolen from Zeus and hidden along the trails of Mount Olympus), appealing visual aesthetics, virtual incentives in the form of points and stars earned depending on the performance of participants, as well as positive/negative feedback. A comprehensive description of the game elements used in the game-based version and the rational of using them can be found in Ninaus et al. (2019) .
2iPN6-(2-isopentenyl) adenine, AA ascorbic acid, AC activated charcoal, ACC 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, AdS adenine sulfate, AgNO3 silver nitrate, B boron, BA N6-benzyladenine (BA is used throughout even though BAP (6-benzylamino purine) may have been used in the original (Teixeira da Silva 2012), B5 Gamborg et al. (1968) medium, Ca calcium, CA citric acid, CaCl2 calcium chloride, CAN calcium ammonium nitrate (H4CaN2O3), CG calcium gluconate, CK cytokinin, CNT carbon nanotube, cv cultivar, DKW Driver and Kuniyuki walnut medium (Driver and Kuniyuki 1984), EGTA ethylene glycol tetra acetic acid, GA3 gibberellic acid, H3BO3 boric acid, IAA indole-3-acetic acid, IBA indole-3-butyric acid, Kin kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine), LPE lysophosphatidylethanolamine, LS Linsmaier and Skoog (1965) medium, MES 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, mesos CaCl22H2O, KH2PO4, MgSO4, Mg magnesium, MS Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium, mTmeta-topolin, mTRmeta-topolin riboside, NAA α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NN Nitsch and Nitsch (1969), NR not reported, PGR plant growth regulator, PVP polyvinylpyrrolidone, QL Quoirin and Lepoivre (1977), RIM root induction medium, s second(s), SEM shoot elongation medium, SGM seed germination medium, SIM shoot induction medium, SMM shoot multiplication medium, SNP sodium nitroprusside, STN shoot tip necrosis, STS silver thiosulfate, TDZ thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea), UQ unquantified, vit vitamin, WPM woody plant medium (Lloyd and McCown 1980), Zea zeatin (6-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enylamino)purine)
aUnlike the majority of other studies where STN was observed after explants were plated or at different stages of in vitro multiplication, in this study, a form of STN was induced as a result of damage induced to shoot tips during explant preparation
Schematic diagram depicting how high humidity and reduced transpiration in closed tissue culture vessels may induce shoot tip necrosis (STN). Such growth conditions can induce low levels of calcium (Ca) which in turn reduces cell motility and pectin synthesis, disrupting cell (cell wall or cell membrane) and tissue integrity, and reduce transpiration (Hepler 2005), potentially leading to STN. This biochemical hypothesis has still not yet been tested specifically for STN
The impact of hyperhydricity, as a result of poorly ventilated culture vessels, may promote shoot tip necrosis (STN). Schematic representation of the possible mechanisms involved in STN when an in vitro plant culture is established in a closed vessel, causing ethylene to accumulate (a). Schematic representation of the possible methods to reduce hyperhydricity and ethylene accumulation, by employing gas-permeable culture vessels, to ensure the healthy growth of shoot tips in vitro by reducing or eliminating the incidence of STN (b)
This is the first test of a highly charged swelling mica's (Na-2-mica) ability to reduce the plant-absorbed Cu in Cu-contaminated soils from Chile. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown in two acid soils (Sector 2: pH 4.2, total Cu = 172 mg Cu kg(-1) and Sector 3: pH 4.2, total Cu = 112 mg Cu kg(-1)) amended with 0.5% and 1% (w/w) mica, and 1% (w/w) montmorillonite. At 10 weeks of growth, both mica treatments decreased the shoot Cu of ryegrass grown in Sector 2 producing shoot Cu concentrations above 21-22 mg Cu kg(-1) (the phytotoxicity threshold for that species), yet the mica treatments did not reduce shoot Cu concentrations when grown in Sector 3, which were at a typical level. The mica treatments improved shoot growth in Sector 3 by reducing free and extractable Cu to low enough levels where other nutrients could compete for plant absorption and translocation. In addition, the mica treatments improved root growth in both soils, and the 1% mica treatment reduced root Cu in both soils. This swelling mica warrants further testing of its ability to assist re-vegetation and reduce Cu bioavailability in Cu-contaminated surface soils.
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being released into aquatic environments with their increasing applications. In this work, we investigated the interaction of CuO NPs with a floating plant, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). CuO NPs (50 mg/L) showed significant growth inhibition on both roots and shoots of E. crassipes after 8-day exposure, much higher than that of the bulk CuO particles (50 mg/L) and their corresponding dissolved Cu 2+ ions (0.30 mg/L). Scanning electron and light microscopic observations showed that the root caps and meristematic zone of E. Crassipes were severely damaged after CuO NP exposure, with disordered cell arrangement and a destroyed elongation zone of root tips. It is confirmed that CuO NPs could be translocated to shoot from both roots and submerged leaves. As detected by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), CuO NPs were observed in roots, submerged leaves, and emerged leaves. Cu 2 S and other Cu species were also detected in these tissues, providing solid evidence of the transformation of CuO NPs. In addition, stomatal closure was observed during CuO NPs-leaf contact, which was induced by the production of H 2 O 2 and increased Ca level in leaf guard cells. These findings are helpful for better understanding the fate of NPs in aquatic plants and related biological responses.